Gospel, Barnabas: Included among the apostles, although like Paul he was not of the Twelve. Tradition says he was especially successful as a preacher, hence the Gospel in the symbol.
Winged Creature with a Lion's Face, Mark: The winged lion represents Mark because his Gospel narrative begins with, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness", and this suggests the roar of a lion.
Keys, Peter: The crossed keys recall Peter's confession and our Lord's gift to him of the keys of the kingdom. See Matt. 16:18,19.
Sheep, The Twelve Apostles: The apostles have been symbolized as a group as well as individually. In one place, twelve doves are used; in another, twelve men are shown, each with a sheep. Some very early carvings represent the apostles as twelve sheep.
Andrew's Cross: Tradition says that while Andrew was preaching in Greece he was put to death on a cross of this type.
Ship, Jude: This apostle traveled far on missionary journeys, hence the ship.
Chalice, John: Early writers state that John once drank from a poisoned chalice and was unharmed.
Twelve Pointed Star, Star of the Apostles: From a Christian perspective, represents the 12 apostles. Search for STAR to see all star symbols.
Bread, Philip: A cross and two loaves of bread, because of Philip's remark when Jesus fed the multitude. John 6:7.
Knives, Bartholomew: Bartholomew is said to have been flayed alive, hence he is usually represented by three flaying knives.
Shell, James (the greater): The scallop shell is the symbol of pilgrimage and stands for this apostle's zeal and missionary spirit.
Purses, Matthew: Symbolized by three purses, referring to his original calling as a tax collector.
Bible with Ax, Matthias: Chosen to take the place of Judas, he is symbolized by an open Bible and double bladed battle-axe. He is said to have been beheaded after his missionary work.
St. Andrew's Cross: The form of cross traditionally associated with the crucifixion of the apostle Andrew, who supposedly requested a form of cross unlike that of his Lord.
Carpenter's square and a spear, Thomas: A carpenter's square and a spear, because this apostle is said to have built a church with his own hands, in India. Later, he was persecuted there and was killed with a spear by a pagan priest.
Winged Creature with the Head of an Ox, Luke: The winged ox (an ox being an anumal of sacrifice) represents Luke, who stresses the atoning sacrifice of Jesus.
Saw, James (the lesser): Represented by a saw, since it is said his body was sawn asunder after a terrible martyrdom.
Bible, Paul: Referred to as the "Apostle to the Gentiles," but not one of the twelve apostles. Symbolized by an open Bible with the words "Spiritus Gladius" (sword of the Spirit), and behind the Bible the sword of the Spirit itself.
Winged Creature with a Man's Face, Matthew: The winged man represents Matthew because his Gospel narrative traces Jesus' human genealogy.
Book on Fish, Simon the Zealot: This symbol is a book upon which rests a fish, because through the power of the Gospel Simon became a great fisher of men.
Nimbus (halo): The nimbus has come to be emblematic of sanctity and to denote a person recognized for unusual piety, such as, apostles, martyrs, and saints.